The Basics Of Gemstone Cuts.

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Asscher Cut  

 The Asscher was developed in 1902 by the Asscher Brothers of Holland. It is a stepped square cut, often called the "square emerald cut" and like an emerald cut , the Asscher has cropped corners. From http://www.adiamondbuyingguide.com/

 

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Brilliant Cut

Brilliant cuts a diamond or other gemstone, cut in a particular form with numerous facets so as to have exceptional brilliance. The shape resembles that of a cone and provides maximized light return through the top of the diamond.

 

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Cabochon

A cabochon, from the Middle French caboche (head), is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished as opposed to  faceted. The resulting form is usually a convex top with a flat bottom. Cutting en cabochon is usually applied to opaque gems, while faceting is usually applied to transparent stones. Hardness is also taken into account as softer gemstones with a hardness lower than 7 on the Mohs hardness scale are easily scratched, mainly by silicon dioxide in dust and grit. This would quickly make translucent gems unattractive—instead they are polished as cabochons, making the scratches less evident.

A cabochon, from the Middle French caboche (head), is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished as opposed to  faceted. The resulting form is usually a convex top with a flat bottom. Cutting en cabochon is usually applied to opaque gems, while faceting is usually applied to transparent stones. Hardness is also taken into account as softer gemstones with a hardness lower than 7 on the Mohs hardness scale are easily scratched, mainly by silicon dioxide in dust and grit. This would quickly make translucent gems unattractive—instead they are polished as cabochons, making the scratches less evident.

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Cushion Cut

The cushion cut is an antique cut that most often resembles a cross between the Old Mine Cut (a deep cut with large facets that was common in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries) and a modern oval cut. This shape is also sometimes referred to as the pillow-cut or the candlelight diamond (a reference to cuts designed prior to electric lights, when diamonds sparkled in the light provided by candles).

This cut is not as fiery or brilliant as many of the newer cuts, but it has a marvelously romantic and classic look and definitely stands out from the crowd of round brilliants.

 

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Emerald Cut
As may be evident by the name, the "emerald cut" was originally developed for cutting emeralds, not diamonds.

While the emerald gemstone is a relatively hard stone (7.5 - 8.0 on the MOHS scale), it is known for numerous inclusions (naturally occuring internal flaws). The inclusions make the stone vulnerable to breakage, making them difficult to cut. The stepped, normally rectangular cut with cropped corners (shown above), known as the "emerald cut" was developed to address these issues.

 

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Marquise Cut
The Marquise Cut (a.k.a. the Navette Cut after the Latin 'navalis', meaning boat shaped) can be traced back to Paris around 1745. The cut is a member of the brilliant family and the story goes that it was first commissioned by Louis XV. He would have ordered the cut for a jewel which was to be worn by his mistress: Mme de Pompadour. This lady was given the title of Marquise in 1745 and the cut was named to honor her and popularize her new title.

Art deco ring with a Marquise Cut diamond, note the open culet

Modern ring with a Marquise Cut diamond, note the now closed culet

The cut is a modified brilliant of elliptical shape with pointed ends. Consequently the cut has undergone the very same evolution as the round brilliant: the older marquise cuts have wider pavilion main facets and lower bezel facets which intersect at approximately one third of the way towards the culet. The open culet persists into the 1930s when it starts to transition into a closed culet. Keep in mind that exceptions in the form of earlier examples with closed culets do exist; the above describes the general trend, not a hard rule. The diagrams below illustrate these changes:

 

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Oval Cut
 
Lazare Kaplan created the Oval shaped diamond in the early 1960s.  It is a variation of the Round Brilliant and, with its 56 facets, is full of brilliance and fire.

The Oval cut is an adaptation of the Round Brilliant and usually looks larger than a round stone of the same carat weight.  It is a great alternative for someone wanting the look of the Round Brilliant, but also looking for something a little different.  The length of the Oval accentuates long slender fingers.

 

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Pear Cut
 
A Pear-shaped are also known as the teardrop shape owing to their resemblance and is considered as a hybrid between the marquise cut and the round brilliant diamond

 

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Princess Cut
 
Princess Cut was designed for getting maximum brilliance from a square cut.

 

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Radiant Cut
Most square or rectangular cuts just don't live up to the round brilliant for sparkle, but the Radiant Cut was designed for getting maximum brilliance. Like the emerald cut, the radiant cut diamond is 
often a rectangle (sometimes square) with cropped corners, but that's where the similarities end. Where the emerald cut has long trim lines, the radiant cut is faceted for fire.

 

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Rose Cut
 
Various forms of the rose cut have been in use since the mid 16th century. Like the step cuts, they were derived from older types of cuts. The basic rose cut has a flat base (no pavilion) and a crown composed of triangular facets (usually 12 or 24) in symmetrical arrangement, which rise to form a point. They are usually circular in outline; variations include: the briolette (oval); Antwerp rose (hexagonal); and double Dutch rose (resembling two rose cuts united back-to-back).

Rose cuts are seldom seen nowadays, except in antique jewelry. Like the older style brilliants and step cuts. 

 

All information and image is sources from Gia, Wikipedia and other web sources.